Brief description on “Odishi” and Allied Music
Ø “Odishi”music belongs to the genre of classical music of India and has its origin in the state of Odisha in the eastern part of India. Out of five main branches of Indian classical music such as Avanti, Panchali, “Udramagadhi”, Hindustani and Carnataki, Udramagadhi exists in the form of Odishi music. Odishi songs traditionally depict the love and frolic of Radha and Lord Krishna. This music is performed In JAGNNATH temple ever since it was constructed and deity Lord Jagnnath worshiped. Odissi dance is also performed along with Odishi music.
Ø During twealth century, JAYDEV, Odia saint poet, composer and illustrious master of classical music developed and given shape to “Geeta Govinda” in to classical status with the ragas prevailing during such period which subsequently transformed to “odishi” music by the exponents of “odishi“. Some of these great exponents of Odisha are late Singhari Shyamsundar Kar, Markeandey Mahapatro. Kashinath Pujapanda, Balkrishna Das, Pt. Bhubaneswar Mishra, Dr. Shyamamani Devi, Sunanda Pattanayak, Gopal Chandra Panda etc,
Ø Odishi is sung through “Raganga”, “Bhavanga”,”Natyanga” and “Dhrubapadanga” followeed by “Champu”, “Chhanda”, “Chautisia”,”Pallavi”, “Bhajan”, “Janana” and “Gita Govinda” which are considered to be the different allied act forms of the music A brief description on these ragas and allied act forms of Odishi music is available in Odia language.
Ø The music has its own codified grammar which are presented with specified ragas and distinctive rendition style. It is lyrical in its movements with wave like ornamentation. The pace of singing in “Odishi” is not very fast nor too slow and it maintains proportional tempo which is very soothing. Odishi Mucis has its own special style of singing which is distinct and separate from all other classical music of the country.
Ø Dr. Shyamamani Devi who has achieved eminence in classical music has sung in all the ragas and allied act form of “Odishi’. Besides, she has also sung ‘adhunik’ (Modern) and “folk songs” including odia Palli Sangeet. She also achieved popularity in her young age as a playback singer for Odia and Bengali films. She has given voice to Bengali, Hindi and Gujarati songs. Some of her important and popular songs in different forms of “Odishi” and Odia adhunik and film songs are listed separately.
Allied form of Odishi Music
It is composed and sung from the epics of Ramayano, Mahabharat and ancient purano of India eulogizing the various deities in odiya language. The main characteristics of this music form is the stress on rhythms. Every pada (stanza) of a chhando is sung in the same swara.
Kavya with admixture of both prose and poem is known as champu. Every song is composed from 34 alphabets of Odiya language ie from “Ko” to “KHYO”. Thus there are total 34 champu. In a particular champu composition, every stanza starts with same alphabet. This is sung in Ragas and talas. There is no taan in this type of music.
It is the song consists of 34 alphabets of Odiya language. This is sung based on the Bruto & Bani and each stanza is sung by same raga. The difference between champu and choutisa is that while champu has 34 songs based on single alphabet, in the case of choutisa , the entire song is composed of all 34 alphabets.
Chaupadi is also composed of 34 stanzas but is not alphabetically arranged.
This is the devotional song mainly for praying to the lord for Compassion or grace. It is sung in more than one raga with domination of the Bhavo. Mostly it is not binding in purely Raga.
This is also another devotional song with basic difference from Janana is that it mainly for praising/eulogizing various God and Goddess of Hindu religion. This is sung based on Japa (like Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare hare).
It is the folk song of western Odisha ie Sambalpuri and Eastern (Coastal) Odisha, It is sung without any raga but based on the rural style of swara and composed in folk languages of the region.
It is also part of Odishi music with lyrics and composition of saint Odia poet “JAYADEV” of thirteenth century. The songs are mixture of Sanskrit and Odia and sung based on the ragas and Tala. After hearing to Geeta Gobinda, Lord Jaganaath goes to sleep.